Liquidity is one of the most important features attracting a diverse group of investors to exchange traded funds (ETFs). Here, we explain the mechanics of ETF trading and the roles played by key members of the liquidity ecosystem.
How Do ETFs Trade?
An exchange traded fund (ETF) is an investment vehicle whose shares trade intraday on stock exchanges at market-determined prices. ETFs are unique in that they offer two markets for trading — the secondary market, where most investors trade, and a primary market that supports the ETF’s liquidity and allows it to trade close to Net Asset Value throughout the day.
The below explains the key ETF trading activities highlighted in Figure 1.
Buyers and sellers of ETF shares place their orders through registered brokers and exchange cash for ETF shares when buying and vice versa for selling.
Short sellers pay a fee to the lender to borrow ETF shares to sell in the market, buy them back later on at a lower price to lock in a profit, and then return them to the lender. In exchange for ETF shares, the short seller provides collateral, which is typically required to be of higher value than that of the borrowed shares.
When the demand for ETF shares exceeds or falls short of the shares available for sale in the secondary market, there will be disparities between the ETF market price and its intrinsic value (NAV) based on underlying security prices. The primary market then provides additional liquidity, as market makers will engage Authorized Participants (APs) to create/redeem ETF shares to balance the supply and demand, keeping ETF share prices close to their intrinsic value. Market makers will deliver ETF baskets to the AP in exchange of ETF shares.
Before creating ETF shares, market makers might need to source underlying securities in the ETF basket by tapping into their own inventory or purchasing from the underlying security market. For less liquid securities, such as emerging market equities, market makers might not be able to source the securities. In that case, the ETF issuer might accept cash-in-lieu as part of the ETF basket and purchase those securities directly from underlying security markets for the fund and charge related costs to the market maker. This process happens in reverse with redemption orders, if market makers need to liquidate the ETF basket delivered from the AP and return the proceeds to the seller of ETF shares. In the end, creation and redemption of ETF shares in the primary market may result in transactions in underlying security markets.
At the end of each trading day, the ETF issuer publishes the Portfolio Component List, which includes the security names and corresponding quantities that comprise the ETF basket for the next trading day.
The AP creates/redeems ETF shares by exchanging securities in the basket for shares of ETFs, or vice versa.
ETF portfolio managers buy or sell underlying securities to manage corporate actions (e.g., dividend payments, mergers and acquisitions, spinoffs), index reconstitution and cash flows to realign portfolios with their benchmark and minimize tracking error. These transactions may impact the liquidity of underlying security markets.
Who Are the Major Liquidity Players in the ETF Market?
ETFs’ unique creation and redemption process and secondary market trading involve a number of capital markets players who contribute to the ETF liquidity ecosystem, including:
Exchange While ETFs are generally listed on one exchange, trading of ETF shares occurs across many trading venues. These include European securities exchanges (e.g. London Stock Exchange, Xetra, Borsa Italiana, Euronext and SIX); alternative trading systems (ATSs or “dark pools”); and over the counter.
Broker/Dealer Brokers and dealers execute trades on behalf of clients by routing orders to trading venues or by matching buyers and sellers directly. Dealers buy and sell securities for their own account. They charge commissions for their services to execute and settle trades.
Institutional Sales and Trading Desk Some brokers have a dedicated Institutional Trading Desk that specializes in facilitating execution of large trades at defined prices. They may quote a market for a given ETF at a given size (risk trade) or act as an AP to place a creation or redemption order on the client’s behalf with the ETF issuer (end-of-day NAV trade).
Authorized Participants (AP) APs are the only counterparties allowed to enter creation and redemption orders with the fund. They are typically self-clearing broker-dealers that serve many functions, including acting as dealers in ETF shares in the secondary market and acting as an agent for market makers and other liquidity providers to create/redeem ETF shares.
Market Makers Simultaneously making offers to buy (bid) and sell (ask) securities at specified prices, market makers provide two-sided liquidity to other market participants. They facilitate the exchange of securities between end investors by bridging the gap between the time when natural buyers and sellers enter the market. Market makers profit from the spreads of their bid-ask quotes as well as arbitrage opportunities between an ETF’s NAV and its market price. This also helps with price discovery and keeps the ETF prices in line with its NAV.
Lead Market Maker (LMM) Selected by the Primary Listing Exchange, LMMs are required by the exchange to meet minimum performance standards, such as best bid and offer, minimum displayed time and minimum quoted spread. In exchange, LMMs receive economic benefits, such as lower transaction fees and higher rebates from the exchange.
Electronic Market Makers (EMM) EMMs employ algorithm and high-frequency trading technology to harvest bid-ask spreads with relatively high trading volume in a short period of time without human interaction. They usually minimize using their balance sheet by making their positions market neutral by the end of the day.
Derivative Trading Desk Derivative trading desks actively transact in the underlying ETF to dynamically hedge their position(s), as they facilitate transactions on a variety of financial instruments for institutional clients. Additionally, ETFs seeking to track indices linked to other structures such as swaps and futures are often used in relative value arbitrage between vehicles.
Short Sellers Short sellers provide liquidity, as they tend to be selling into demand when share prices appreciate, and conversely looking to buy back shares when prices decline. For example, if most investors are optimistic about the asset’s future performance, ETF share prices increase, leading to more demand of ETF shares. Short sellers who hold a contrarian view will borrow shares from brokers and sell them when there is more demand for purchases and buy them back later, when most investors are selling.
Create-to-Lend Desk Create-to-Lend Desks create ETF shares (through an AP) for the purpose of lending them to clients seeking to borrow the shares. They usually hedge their positions to minimize price risks.
Each of these capital markets players contributes to ETFs trading more efficiently throughout the day, which benefits both buyers and sellers. There are also economic benefits for the capital markets participants.
Who Are the ETF Issuer’s Liquidity Players?
The ETF issuer develops ETF products, determines fund investment objectives, manages the ETF portfolio according to the fund’s objectives and oversees day-to-day operations. Within the organization, these three functions deal with market liquidity:
Portfolio Manager and Trading Desk Portfolio managers manage the ETF portfolio, seeking to achieve the investment objective. They determine the composition of ETF baskets. Portfolio managers’ trading desks execute trades as directed by portfolio managers. They work with liquidity providers of underlying securities to source liquidity, minimize trading costs and seek best execution.
Capital Markets Team Building relationships with APs, exchanges, market makers, trading desks/platforms and other liquidity providers, the capital markets team plays an active role in promoting competitive markets to improve the ETF liquidity ecosystem. Given their relationship with market participants and insight into primary and secondary market activity, they are a critical resource for investors looking to execute large ETF trades efficiently.
Product Development ETFs rely on arbitrage activities to keep the fund’s market price in line with its NAV. Therefore, when designing an index for an ETF to track, the product development team ensures the ETF basket is liquid enough to efficiently manage the fund from a liquidity perspective. This, in turn, allows market participants to effectively create/ redeem ETF shares and keep prices in line with NAV.
Liquidity Risk Management The liquidity risk management team monitor fund underlying asset liquidity and funding liquidity using a variety of risk metrics and quantitative models in normal and stress scenarios to ensure the ETF’s ability to meet client redemption in a fair and orderly manner. They engage with portfolio managers, traders, product managers and other stakeholders to address any liquidity issues identified.
State Street launched the first US-listed ETF in 1993 Since then, ETFs have become an increasingly popular investment vehicle for both individual and institutional investors. Improving education about how ETFs are structured and traded is vital to helping investors understand the potential benefits of investing in ETFs.
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Important Risk Information
ETFs trade like stocks, are subject to investment risk, fluctuate in market value and may trade at prices above or below the ETFs’ net asset value. Brokerage commissions and ETF expenses will reduce returns. There can be no assurance that a liquid market will be maintained for ETF shares.
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ETFs trade like stocks, are subject to investment risk, fluctuate in market value and may trade at prices above or below the ETFs net asset value. Brokerage commissions and ETF expenses will reduce returns. Changes in exchange rates may have an adverse effect on the value, price or income of an investment. Further there is no guarantee that an ETF will achieve its investment objective. SSGA SPDR ETFS MAY NOT BE AVAILABLE OR SUITABLE FOR YOU. THE VIEWS EXPRESSED/INFORMATION IN THIS SITE DOES NOT CONSTITUTE INVESTMENT ADVICE, FINANCIAL, LEGAL, REGULATORY, ACCOUNTING OR TAX ADVICE. INDEPENDENT ADVICE SHOULD BE SOUGHT IN CASES OF DOUBT. NEITHER THE INFORMATION NOR ANY OPINION CONTAINED ON THIS SITE CONSTITUTES A SOLICITATION OR OFFER TO BUY OR SELL SHARES OF THE FUNDS OR ANY OTHER FINANCIAL INSTRUMENT. Standard & Poor's®, S&P® and SPDR® are registered trademarks of Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC (S&P); Dow Jones is a registered trademark of Dow Jones Trademark Holdings LLC (Dow Jones); and these trademarks have been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC (SPDJI) and sublicensed for certain purposes by State Street Corporation. State Street Corporation's financial products are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by SPDJI, Dow Jones, S&P, their respective affiliates and third party licensors and none of such parties make any representation regarding the advisability of investing in such product(s) nor do they have any liability in relation thereto, including for any errors, omissions, or interruptions of any index.
SPDR ETFs may be offered and sold only in those jurisdictions where authorised, in compliance with applicable regulations.
Information related to Mexico
This information does not constitute and is not intended to constitute marketing or an offer of securities and accordingly should not be construed as such. The Funds referenced herein have not been, and will not be, registered under the Mexican Securities Market Law (Ley del Mercado de Valores) and may not be publicly offered or sold in the United Mexican States. Disclosure documentation related to any of the aforementioned Funds may not be distributed publicly in Mexico and shares of the Funds may not be traded in Mexico.
European SPDR ETFs
SSGA SPDR ETFs Europe I Plc and SSGA SPDR ETFs Europe II Plc are investment companies with variable capital constituted as umbrella funds with segregated liability between sub-funds under the laws of Ireland and authorized by the Central Bank of Ireland pursuant to the European Communities (Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities) Regulations 2011.
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US SPDR ETFs
The US domiciled SPDR ETFs named on this site (excluding SPDR Gold Shares & SPDR Gold MiniShares Trust) are only permitted to be marketed into the relevant EEA jurisdiction pursuant to either Article 42 of AIFMD (as implemented under national laws of such member state); or (ii) can otherwise be lawfully offered or sold (including on the basis of an unsolicited request from a professional/Qualified investor). Some of the US domiciled SPDR ETFs mentioned in this site are alternative investment funds for the purpose of the European Union Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive (Directive 2011/61/EU) (“AIFMD”). SSGA Funds Management, Inc. and State Street Global Advisors Trust Company are the alternative investment fund managers (“AIFMs”) of these Funds.
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