Some regulators and standard setters have established requirements and criteria to identify and tackle fossil fuel reserves; however, the definitions, measurements, and investment products used to mitigate fossil fuels exposure can vary widely and, in some cases, prove to be confusing for investors.
To help clients navigate this landscape, State Street Global Advisors has created a framework that detects and classifies fossil fuel reserves in a comprehensive and sensible manner. The framework focuses on the following activities, which are generally associated with fossil fuel reserves:
- Oil Extraction and Power Generation
- Natural Gas Extraction and Power Generation
- Thermal Coal Extraction and Power Generation
- Shale Extraction
- Oil Sands Extraction
- Arctic Oil and Gas Exploration
POV Screening Approach
State Street’s standard Point of View (POV) screens employ, where possible, a 10% revenue threshold, and focus specifically on entities with direct involvement (vs. ownership criteria) in a particular area such as fossil fuels. In addition, our POV screens leverage best-in-class ESG data provided by Sustainalytics and are updated on a quarterly basis. We apply focused lists and 10% revenue-based metrics with the intention of concentrating our restricted securities on those issuers with meaningful involvement in the product, issue, or topic in question, rather than more indirect or minimal involvement. Our intention is not to screen every issuer that touches the topic in question, but rather to screen those with notable involvement. This allows us to balance screening preferences with other investment considerations.
Fossil Fuel Reserves POV Screen
While our approach to fossil fuel exclusions follows State Street’s standard approach shown in Figure 1, we are also able to provide some level of customization in our screening process. For example, investors can adjust the revenue thresholds of each specific screen and expand the “blacklist” to include indirect/ownership dimensions, or add/remove a particular metric or indicator (see Figure 2).