Amid challenging geopolitical and economic environments, fixed income markets registered some of their worst returns on record in the first half of 2022. Our investment process proved resilient despite the challenging market environment, with 99.6%1 of our indexed funds performing within their pre-set tracking bands. Our portfolio managers and traders continuously adhere to our rigorous risk-control process, ensuring client cash flow requirements are met while also minimizing tracking risk (Figure 1).
Composite Return (6M)
1-3 US Credit
3-10 US Credit
Long US Credit*
1-3 US Treasuries
3-10 US Treasuries
Long US Treasuries
US Inflation Linked
US High Yield
Emerging Markets - Local
Source: SSGA, Bloomberg as of 06/30/2022.
Past performance does not guarantee future results.
*Performance calculated as of 01/04/2022 – 06/30/2022 due to an industry-wide pricing issue on 12/31 that affected longer-dated credit products.
A notable shift from 2021, credit sectors lagged US Treasuries as a result of slowing growth and decreased demand, leading to a widening in credit spreads to mid-2020 levels. Corporate issuance, hindered by the Fed’s aggressive monetary stance, fell substantially from 2021’s levels, with investment grade issuance down 15% and high yield issuance down 75% versus the prior year.
The substantial rise in Treasury yields across the curve during the first quarter of the year was particularly painful for fixed income investors, as the low interest rate environment of the past few years translated to minimal income to offset price losses. Nevertheless, while price returns across the board continue to be discouraging, investors are now getting more income from their fixed income than they have in quite some time. Current yield levels in most of the major fixed income sectors are either at 10-year highs or at the higher end of these ranges (Figure 2.)
Figure 2: Yield Levels Look More Attractive Today Relative to Long-Term History
For many investors, the higher yields in fixed income today offer a welcome change from the levels of the past decade. Corporate defined-benefit pension plans will want to take the opportunity to de-risk given high funded ratios, while public pensions can get closer to their target long-term returns with diversified fixed income allocations .
The fixed income team continued to see positive flows in the first half of 2022, even amid current market volatility. We saw a total of $9.6 billion of inflows for the period, where both institutional and ETF allocations showed a strong preference for longer-dated government securities as clients looked to extend duration and lock in higher coupons. In addition, we have seen an upsurge in inquiries for short US TIPS strategies as clients look to hedge against the negative effect inflation has had on their fixed income allocations.
Evolution and Innovation in Fixed Income Markets
A notable trend we have witnessed within fixed income is the ever-increasing adoption of electronic trading systems and novel trading techniques such as portfolio trading and all-to-all trading. These developments have substantially transformed fixed income markets over the past few decades from its traditional opaqueness and have allowed for greater insights into liquidity data and pricing, in addition to faster and more efficient access to market liquidity.
The consolidation of bids and offers by electronic trading platforms expands the number of potential interested counterparties, contributing to better pricing and lower transaction costs. Approximately 10 years ago, MarketAxess started publishing its Bid-Ask Spread Index (BASI) as an indicator of market liquidity.2 A daily calculated index based on TRACE3 data, BASI tracks the difference between bids and asks on actively traded corporate bonds over time. As shown in Figure 3, bid-ask spreads are trending downward as electronic trading gains more traction, with some back-ups in times of increased market volatility.
Figure 3: The Decrease of Bid-Ask Spreads
These fixed income market efficiencies positively impact investors in the following ways:
Expanded network access instantaneously creates opportunities for improved matches between buyers and sellers.
Improved matches mean better prices – for both buyers and sellers – which means lower costs to access liquidity.
More data and better liquidity translates to more opportunities for data-based players to quickly squeeze out mis-pricings.
Looking forward, as market efficiencies continue to pressure excess return opportunities, beta decisions rather than security selection will likely drive fundamentally based excess returns. Data and technology are creating new opportunities for both indexing and data-driven, systematic approaches to thrive in an information-rich environment.
State Street Global Advisors will continue to utilize our deep insights into market structure, liquidity, and risk in order to navigate aggressive monetary policy, volatility, and heightened inflation. As always, we are grateful for your business and trust and look forward to our continued partnership.
1Based on one year performance as of March 31, 2022. 2Bid-Ask Spread Index (BASI) tracks the daily spread between bids and offers in US investment grade and European market segments. It uses BondTicker and MarketAxess’ post-trade analytics market data (inventory levels not trades). It is available for overall market, by trade size and by sector for US investment grade and overall for Europe. First, the bid-ask for each security of the universe is computed using volume weighted spreads of TRACE trades. Then the mean spread is used as an input of a locally weighted scatterplot smoothing average. The output is BASI. 3Trade Reporting and Compliance Engine (TRACE) is a program developed by the National Association of Securities Dealers, now known as FINRA, that allows for the reporting of over-the-counter transactions pertaining to eligible fixed income securities.
The information provided does not constitute investment advice and it should not be relied on as such. It should not be considered a solicitation to buy or an offer to sell a security. It does not take into account any investor’s particular investment objectives, strategies, tax status or investment horizon. You should consult your tax and financial advisor.
All information has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but its accuracy is not guaranteed. There is no representation or warranty as to the current accuracy, reliability or completeness of, nor liability for, decisions based on such information.
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Investing involves risk including the risk of loss of principal.
The views expressed are the views of Matthew J. Steinaway through September 8, 2022, and are subject to change based on market and other conditions. This document contains certain statements that may be deemed forward-looking statements. Please note that any such statements are not guarantees of any future performance and actual results or developments may differ materially from those projected.
The information contained in this communication is not a research recommendation or ‘investment research’ and is classified as a ‘Marketing Communication’ in accordance with the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (2014/65/EU) or applicable Swiss regulation. This means that this marketing communication (a) has not been prepared in accordance with legal requirements designed to promote the independence of investment research (b) is not subject to any prohibition on dealing ahead of the dissemination of investment research.
Bonds generally present less short-term risk and volatility than stocks, but contain interest rate risk (as interest rates raise, bond prices usually fall); issuer default risk; issuer credit risk; liquidity risk; and inflation risk. These effects are usually pronounced for longer-term securities. Any fixed income security sold or redeemed prior to maturity may be subject to a substantial gain or loss. International Government bonds and corporate bonds generally have more moderate short-term price fluctuations than stocks, but provide lower potential long-term returns.
Investing in high yield fixed income securities, otherwise known as “junk bonds,” is considered speculative and involves greater risk of loss of principal and interest than investing in investment grade fixed income securities. These Lower-quality debt securities involve greater risk of default or price changes due to potential changes in the credit quality of the issuer.
Investing in foreign domiciled securities may involve risk of capital loss from unfavorable fluctuation in currency values, withholding taxes, from differences in generally accepted accounting principles or from economic or political instability in other nations.
The returns on a portfolio of securities which exclude companies that do not meet the portfolio’s specified ESG criteria may trail the returns on a portfolio of securities which include such companies. A portfolio’s ESG criteria may result in the portfolio investing in industry sectors or securities which underperform the market as a whole.
ETFs trade like stocks, are subject to investment risk, fluctuate in market value and may trade at prices above or below the ETFs net asset value. Brokerage commissions and ETF expenses will reduce returns.
This information is for informational purposes only, not to be construed as investment advice or a recommendation or offer to buy or sell any security. Investors should always obtain and read an up-to-date investment services description or prospectus before deciding whether to appoint an investment manager or to invest in a fund. Any views expressed herein are those of the author(s), are based on available information, and are subject to change without notice. Individual portfolio management teams may hold different views and may make different investment decisions for different clients. There are no guarantees regarding the achievement of investment objectives, target returns, portfolio construction, allocations or measurements such as alpha, tracking error, stock weightings and other information ratios. The views and strategies described may not be suitable for all investors. SSGA does not provide tax or legal advice. Prospective investors should consult with a tax or legal advisor before making any investment decision. Investing entails risks and there can be no assurance that SSGA will achieve profits or avoid incurring losses.
Performance quoted represents past performance, which is no guarantee of future results. Investment return and principal value will fluctuate, so you may have a gain or loss when shares are sold. Current performance may be higher or lower than that quoted.