2018 Proxy Voting and Engagement Guidelines: North America (United States & Canada)

State Street Global Advisors' ("SSGA") North America Proxy Voting and Engagement Guidelines address areas including board structure, director tenure, audit related issues, capital structure, executive compensation, environmental, social and other governance-related issues of companies listed on stock exchanges in the US and Canada ("North America"). Principally, we believe the primary responsibility of the board of directors is to preserve and enhance shareholder value and protect shareholder interests. In order to carry out their primary responsibilities, directors have to undertake activities that range from setting strategy and overseeing executive management to monitoring the risks that arise from a company's business, including risks related to sustainability issues. Further, good corporate governance necessitates the existence of effective internal controls and risk management systems, which should be governed by the board.

When voting and engaging with companies in global markets, SSGA considers market specific nuances in the manner that we believe will most likely protect and promote the longterm economic value of client investments. SSGA expects companies to observe the relevant laws and regulations of their respective markets as well as country specific best practice guidelines and corporate governance codes. When we feel that a country's regulatory requirements do not address some of the key philosophical principles that SSGA believes are fundamental to its global voting guidelines, we may hold companies in such markets to our global standards.

In its analysis and research into corporate governance issues in North America, SSGA expects all companies to act in a transparent manner and provide detailed disclosure on board profiles, related- arty transactions, executive compensation and other governance issues that impact shareholders' long- erm interests. Further, as a founding member of the Investor Stewardship Group ("ISG"), SSGA proactively monitors companies' adherence to the Corporate Governance Principles for US listed companies. Consistent with the ‘comply or explain' expectations established by the principles, SSGA encourages companies to proactively disclose their level of compliance with the principles. In instances of non-compliance when companies cannot explain the nuances of their governance structure effectively, either publicly or through engagement, SSGA may vote against the independent board leader.

SSGA's Proxy Voting and Engagement Philosophy
In our view, corporate governance and sustainability issues are an integral part of the investment process. The Asset Stewardship Team consists of investment professionals with expertise in corporate governance and company law, remuneration, accounting as well as environmental and social issues. SSGA has established robust corporate governance principles and practices that are backed with extensive analytical expertise to understand the complexities of the corporate governance landscape. SSGA engages with companies to provide insight on the principles and practices that drive our voting decisions. We also conduct proactive engagements to address significant shareholder concerns and environmental, social and governance ("ESG") issues in a manner consistent with maximizing shareholder value.

The team works alongside members of SSGA's active investment teams; collaborating on issuer engagements and providing input on company specific fundamentals. SSGA is also a member of various investor associations that seek to address broader corporate governance related policy issues in North America.

SSGA is a signatory to the United Nations Principles of Responsible Investment ("UNPRI") and is compliant with the US Investor Stewardship Group Principles. We are committed to sustainable investing and are working to further integrate ESG principles into investment and corporate governance practices, where applicable and consistent with our fiduciary duty.

Directors and Boards
SSGA believes that a well constituted board of directors, with a good balance of skills, expertise and independence, provides the foundations for a well governed company. SSGA views board quality as a measure of director independence, director succession planning, board diversity, evaluations and refreshment, and company governance practices. SSGA votes for the election/re-election of directors on a case-by-case basis after considering various factors including board quality, general market practice and availability of information on director skills and expertise. In principle, SSGA believes independent directors are crucial to good  corporate governance and help management establish sound corporate governance policies and practices. A sufficiently independent board will most effectively monitor management and perform oversight functions necessary to protect shareholder interests. Further, SSGA expects boards of Russell 3000 and TSX listed companies to have at least one female board member .

Director related proposals include issues submitted to shareholders that deal with the composition of the board or with members of a corporation's board of directors. In deciding which director nominee to support, SSGA considers numerous factors.

Director Elections
SSGA's director election policy focuses on companies' governance profile to identify if a company demonstrates appropriate governance practices or if it exhibits negative governance practices. Factors SSGA considers when evaluating governance practices include, but are not limited to the following:

  • Shareholder rights;
  • Board independence; and
  • Board structure

If a company demonstrates appropriate governance practices, SSGA believes a director should be classified as independent based on the relevant listing standards or local market practice standards. In such cases, the composition of the key oversight committees of a board should meet the minimum standards of independence. Accordingly, SSGA will vote against a nominee at a company with appropriate governance practices if the director is classified as nonindependent under relevant listing standards or local market practice AND serves on a key committee of the board (compensation, audit, nominating or committees required to be fully independent by local market standards).

Conversely, if a company demonstrates negative governance practices, SSGA believes the classification standards for director independence should be elevated. In such circumstances, we will evaluate all director nominees based on the following classification standards:

• Is the nominee an employee of or related to an employee of the issuer or its auditor;

• Does the nominee provide professional services to the issuer;

• Has the nominee attended an appropriate number of board meetings; or

• Has the nominee received non-board related compensation from the issuer.

In the U.S. market where companies demonstrate negative governance practices, these stricter standards will apply not only to directors who are a member of a key committee but to all directors on the board as market practice permits. Accordingly, SSGA will vote against a nominee (with the exception of the CEO) where the board has inappropriate governance practices and is considered not independent based on the above independence criteria.

Additionally, SSGA may withhold votes from directors based on the following:

• When overall average board tenure is excessive. In assessing excessive tenure, SSGA gives consideration to factors such as the preponderance of long tenured directors, board refreshment practices, and classified board structures;

• When directors attend less than 75% of board meetings without appropriate explanation or providing reason for their failure to meet the attendance threshold;

• CEOs of a public company who sit on more than three public company boards;

• Director nominees who sit on more than six public company boards;

• Directors of companies that have not been responsive to a shareholder proposal which received a majority shareholder support at the last annual or special meeting; consideration maybe given if management submits the proposal(s) on the ballot as a binding management proposal, recommending shareholders vote for the particular proposal(s);

• Directors of companies have unilaterally adopted/ amended company bylaws that negatively impact SSGA’s shareholder rights (such as fee-shifting, forum selection and exclusion service bylaws) without putting such amendments to a shareholder vote;

• Compensation committee members where there is a weak relationship between executive pay and performance over a five-year period;

• Audit committee members if non-audit fees exceed 50% of total fees paid to the auditors; and

• Directors who appear to have been remiss in their duties.

Director Related Proposals

SSGA generally votes for the following director related proposals:

• Discharge of board members’ duties, in the absence of pending litigation, regulatory investigation, charges of fraud or other indications of significant concern;

• Proposals to restore shareholders’ ability to remove directors with or without cause;

• Proposals that permit shareholders to elect directors to fill board vacancies; and

• Shareholder proposals seeking disclosure regarding the company, board, or compensation committee’s use of compensation consultants, such as company name, business relationship(s) and fees paid.


SSGA generally votes against the following director related proposals:

• Requirements that candidates for directorships own large amounts of stock before being eligible to be elected;

• Proposals that relate to the “transaction of other business as properly comes before the meeting”, which extend “blank check” powers to those acting as proxy; and

• Proposals requiring two candidates per board seat.

Majority Voting

SSGA will generally support a majority vote standard based on votes cast for the election of directors.

SSGA will generally vote to support amendments to bylaws that would require simple majority of voting shares (i.e. shares cast) to pass or repeal certain provisions.

Annual Elections

SSGA generally supports the establishment of annual elections of the board of directors. Consideration is given to the overall level of board independence and the independence of the key committees as well as whether there is a shareholders rights plan.

Cumulative Voting

SSGA does not support cumulative voting structures for the election of directors.

Separation Chair/CEO

SSGA analyzes proposals for the separation of Chair/CEO on a case-by-case basis taking into consideration numerous factors, including but not limited to, the appointment of and role played by a lead director, a company’s performance and the overall governance structure of the company.

Proxy Access In general, SSGA believes that proxy access is a fundamental right and an accountability mechanism for all long-term shareholders. SSGA will consider proposals relating to Proxy Access on a case-by-case basis. SSGA will support shareholder proposals that set parameters to empower long-term shareholders while providing management the flexibility to design a process that is appropriate for the company’s circumstances.

SSGA will review the terms of all other proposals and will support those proposals that have been introduced in the spirit of enhancing shareholder rights.

Considerations include but are not limited to the following:

• The ownership thresholds and holding duration proposed in the resolution;

• The binding nature of the proposal;

• The number of directors that shareholders may be able to nominate each year;

• Company governance structure;

• Shareholder rights; and

• Board performance


Age/Term Limits Generally, SSGA will vote against age and term limits unless the company is found to have poor board refreshment and director succession practices and has a preponderance of non-executive directors with excessively long-tenures serving on the board.

Approve Remuneration of Directors

Generally, SSGA will support directors’ compensation, provided the amounts are not excessive relative to other issuers in the market or industry. In making our determination, we review whether the compensation is overly dilutive to existing shareholders.


Generally, SSGA supports proposals to limit directors’ liability and/or expand indemnification and liability protection if he or she has not acted in bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of his or her office.

Classified Boards

SSGA generally supports annual elections for the board of directors.

Confidential Voting

SSGA will support confidential voting.

Board Size

SSGA will support proposals seeking to fix the board size or designate a range for the board size and will vote against proposals that give management the ability to alter the size of the board outside of a specified range without shareholder approval.

Audit Related Issues

Ratifying Auditors and Approving Auditor Compensation

SSGA supports the approval of auditors and auditor compensation provided that the issuer has properly disclosed audit and non-audit fees relative to market practice and the audit fees are not deemed excessive. SSGA deems audit fees to be excessive if the non-audit fees for the prior year constituted 50% or more of the total fees paid to the auditor. SSGA will support the disclosure of auditor and consulting relationships when the same or related entities are conducting both activities and will support the establishment of a selection committee responsible for the final approval of significant management consultant contract awards where existing firms are already acting in an auditing function.

In circumstances where “other” fees include fees related to initial public offerings, bankruptcy emergence, and spin-offs, and the company makes public disclosure of the amount and nature of those fees which are determined to be an exception to the standard “non-audit fee” category, then such fees may be excluded from the non-audit fees considered in determining the ratio of non-audit to audit/audit-related fees/tax compliance and preparation for purposes of determining whether non-audit fees are excessive.

SSGA will support the discharge of auditors and requirements that auditors attend the annual meeting of shareholders.1

Capital Related Issues

Capital structure proposals include requests by management for approval of amendments to the certificate of incorporation that will alter the capital structure of the company.

The most common request is for an increase in the number of authorized shares of common stock, usually in conjunction with a stock split or dividend. Typically, requests that are not unreasonably dilutive or enhance the rights of common shareholders are supported. In considering authorized share proposals, the typical threshold for approval is 100% over current authorized shares. However, the threshold may be increased if the company offers a specific need or purpose (merger, stock splits, growth purposes, etc.). All proposals are evaluated on a case-by-case basis taking into account the company’s specific financial situation.

Increase in Authorized Common Shares

In general, SSGA supports share increases for general corporate purposes up to 100% of current authorized stock.

SSGA supports increases for specific corporate purposes up to 100% of the specific need plus 50% of current authorized common stock for US and Canadian firms.

When applying the thresholds, SSGA will also consider the nature of the specific need, such as mergers and acquisitions and stock splits.

Increase in Authorized Preferred Shares

SSGA votes on a case-by-case basis on proposals to increase the number of preferred shares.

Generally, SSGA will vote for the authorization of preferred stock in cases where the company specifies the voting, dividend, conversion, and other rights of such stock and the terms of the preferred stock appear reasonable.

SSGA will support proposals to create “declawed” blank check preferred stock (stock that cannot be used as a takeover defense). However, SSGA will vote against proposals to increase the number of blank check preferred stock authorized for issuance when no shares have been issued or reserved for a specific purpose. 

Unequal Voting Rights

SSGA will not support proposals authorizing the creation of new classes of common stock with superior voting rights and will vote against new classes of preferred stock with unspecified voting, conversion, dividend distribution, and other rights. In addition, SSGA will not support capitalization changes that add “blank check” classes of stock (i.e. classes of stock with undefined voting rights) or classes that dilute the voting interests of existing shareholders.

However, SSGA will support capitalization changes that eliminate other classes of stock and/or unequal voting rights.

Mergers and Acquisitions

Mergers or reorganizing the structure of a company often involve proposals relating to reincorporation, restructurings, liquidations, and other major changes to the corporation.

Proposals that are in the best interests of the shareholders, demonstrated by enhancing share value or improving the effectiveness of the company’s operations, will be supported.

In general, provisions that are not viewed as economically sound or are thought to be destructive to shareholders’ rights are not supported.

SSGA will generally support transactions that maximize shareholder value. Some of the considerations include, but are not limited to the following:

• Offer premium;

• Strategic rationale;

• Board oversight of the process for the recommended transaction, including, director and/or management conflicts of interest;

• Offers made at a premium and where there are no other higher bidders; and

• Offers in which the secondary market price is substantially lower than the net asset value.


SSGA may vote against a transaction considering the following:

• Offers with potentially damaging consequences for minority shareholders because of illiquid stock, especially in some non-US markets;

• Offers where we believe there is a reasonable prospect for an enhanced bid or other bidders; and

• At the time of voting, the current market price of the security exceeds the bid price.

Anti–Takeover Issues

Typically, these are proposals relating to requests by management to amend the certificate of incorporation or bylaws to add or delete a provision that is deemed to have an anti-takeover effect. The majority of these proposals deal with management’s attempt to add some provision that makes a hostile takeover more difficult or will protect incumbent management in the event of a change in control of the company.

Proposals that reduce shareholders’ rights or have the effect of entrenching incumbent management will not be supported.

Proposals that enhance the right of shareholders to make their own choices as to the desirability of a merger or other proposal are supported.

Shareholder Rights Plans

US: SSGA will support mandates requiring shareholder approval of a shareholder rights plans (“poison pill”) and repeals of various anti-takeover related provisions.

In general, SSGA will vote against the adoption or renewal of a US issuer’s shareholder rights plan (“poison pill”).

SSGA will vote for an amendment to a shareholder rights plan (“poison pill”) where the terms of the new plans are more favorable to shareholders’ ability to accept unsolicited offers (i.e. if one of the following conditions are met: (i) minimum trigger, flip-in or flip-over of 20%, (ii) maximum term of three years, (iii) no “dead hand,” “slow hand,” “no hand” or similar feature that limits the ability of a future board to redeem the pill, and (iv) inclusion of a shareholder redemption feature (qualifying offer clause), permitting ten percent of the shares to call a special meeting or seek a written consent to vote on rescinding the pill if the board refuses to redeem the pill 90 days after a qualifying offer is announced).

Canada: SSGA analyzes proposals for shareholder approval of a shareholder rights plans (“poison pill”) on a case-by-case basis taking into consideration numerous factors, including but not limited to, whether it conforms to ‘new generation’ rights plans and the scope of the plan.

Special Meetings

SSGA will vote for shareholder proposals related to special meetings at companies that do not provide shareholders the right to call for a special meeting in their bylaws if:

• The company also does not allow shareholders to act by written consent; or

• The company allows shareholders to act by written consent but the ownership threshold for acting by written consent is set above 25% of outstanding shares.

SSGA will vote for shareholder proposals related to special meetings at companies that give shareholders (with a minimum 10% ownership threshold) the right to call for a special meeting in their bylaws if:

• The current ownership threshold to call for a special meeting is above 25% of outstanding shares. SSGA will vote for management proposals related to special meetings. Written Consent SSGA will vote for shareholder proposals on written consent at companies if:

• The company does not have provisions in their bylaws giving shareholders the right to call for a special meeting; or

• The company allows shareholders the right to call for a special meeting but the current ownership threshold to call for a special meeting is above 25% of outstanding shares; and

• The company has a poor governance profile.

SSGA will vote management proposals on written consent on a case-by-case basis.


SSGA will generally vote against amendments to bylaws requiring super-majority shareholder votes to pass or repeal certain provisions. SSGA will vote for the reduction or elimination of super-majority vote requirements, unless management of the issuer was concurrently seeking to or had previously made such a reduction or elimination.

Remuneration Issues

Despite the differences among the types of plans and the awards possible there is a simple underlying philosophy that guides the analysis of all compensation plans; namely, are the terms of the plan designed to provide an incentive for executives and/or employees to align their interests with those of the shareholders and thus work toward enhancing shareholder value. Plans which benefit participants only when the shareholders also benefit are those most likely to be supported.

Advisory Vote on Executive Compensation and Frequency

SSGA believes executive compensation plays a critical role in aligning executives interest with shareholder’s, attracting, retaining and incentivizing key talent, and ensuring positive correlation between the performance achieved by management and the benefits derived by shareholders. SSGA supports management proposals on executive compensation where there is a strong relationship between executive pay and performance over a five-year period. SSGA seeks adequate disclosure of different compensation elements, absolute and relative pay levels, peer selection and benchmarking, the mix of long term and short term incentives, alignment of pay structures with shareholder interests as well as with corporate strategy and performance. Further, shareholders should have the opportunity to assess whether pay structures and levels are aligned with business performance on an annual basis.

In Canada, where advisory votes on executive compensation are not commonplace, SSGA will rely primarily on engagement to evaluate compensation plans.

Employee Equity Award Plans

SSGA considers numerous criteria when examining equity award proposals. Generally, SSGA does not vote against plans for lack of performance or vesting criteria. Rather, the main criteria that will result in a vote against an equity award plan are:

Excessive voting power dilution To assess the dilutive effect, we divide the number of shares required to fully fund the proposed plan, the number of authorized but unissued shares and the issued but unexercised shares by the fully diluted share count. SSGA reviews that number in light of certain factors, including the industry of the issuer.

Historical option grants Excessive historical option grants over the past three years. Plans that provide for historical grant patterns of greater than five to eight percent are generally not supported.

Repricing SSGA will vote against any plan where repricing is expressly permitted. If a company has a history of repricing underwater options, the plan will not be supported. 

Other criteria include the following:

• Number of participants or eligible employees;

• The variety of awards possible; and

• The period of time covered by the plan.

There are numerous factors that we view as negative, and together, may result in a vote against a proposal:

• Grants to individuals or very small groups of participants

; • “Gun-jumping” grants which anticipate shareholder approval of a plan or amendment;

• The power of the board to exchange “underwater” options without shareholder approval; this pertains to the ability of a company to reprice options, not the actual act of repricing described above; 

• Below market rate loans to officers to exercise their options;

• The ability to grant options at less than fair market value;

• Acceleration of vesting automatically upon a change in control; and

• Excessive compensation (i.e. compensation plans which are deemed by SSGA to be overly dilutive).

Share Repurchases If a company makes a clear connection between a share repurchase program and its intent to offset dilution created from option plans and the company fully discloses the amount of shares being repurchased, the voting dilution calculation may be adjusted to account for the impact of the buy back.

Companies who do not (i) clearly state the intentions of any proposed share buy-back plan or (ii) disclose a definitive number of the shares to be bought back, (iii) specify the range of premium/discount to market price at which a company can repurchase shares and, (iv) disclose the time frame during which the shares will be bought back, will not have any such repurchase plan factored into the dilution calculation.

162(m) Plan Amendments If a plan would not normally meet the SSGA criteria described above, but is primarily being amended to add specific performance criteria to be used with awards designed to qualify for performance-based exception from the tax deductibility limitations of Section 162(m) of the Internal Revenue Code, then SSGA will support the proposal to amend the plan.

Employee Stock Option Plans

SSGA generally votes for stock purchase plans with an exercise price of not less than 85% of fair market value. However, SSGA takes market practice into consideration.

Compensation Related Items

SSGA will generally support the following proposals:

• Expansions to reporting of financial or compensationrelated information, within reason; and

• Proposals requiring the disclosure of executive retirement benefits if the issuer does not have an independent compensation committee.

SSGA will generally vote against the following proposals:

• Retirement bonuses for non-executive directors and auditors

Miscellaneous/Routine Items

SSGA generally supports the following miscellaneous/routine governance items:

• Reimbursement of all appropriate proxy solicitation expenses associated with the election when voting in conjunction with support of a dissident slate;

• Opting-out of business combination provision;

• Proposals that remove restrictions on the right of shareholders to act independently of management;

• Liquidation of the company if the company will file for bankruptcy if the proposal is not approved;

• Shareholder proposals to put option repricings to a shareholder vote;

• General updating of, or corrective amendments to, charter and bylaws not otherwise specifically addressed herein, unless such amendments would reasonably be expected to diminish shareholder rights (e.g. extension of directors’ term limits, amending shareholder vote requirement to amend the charter documents, insufficient information provided as to the reason behind the amendment); • Change in corporation name;

• Mandates that amendments to bylaws or charters have shareholder approval;

• Management proposals to change the date, time, and/or location of the annual meeting unless the proposed change is unreasonable;

• Repeals, prohibitions or adoption of antigreenmail provisions;

• Management proposals to implement a reverse stock split when the number of authorized shares will be proportionately reduced and proposals to implement a reverse stock split to avoid delisting; and

• Exclusive forum provisions.

SSGA generally does not support the following miscellaneous/routine governance items:

• Proposals asking companies to adopt full tenure holding periods for their executives;

• Reincorporation to a location that we believe has more negative attributes than its current location of incorporation;

• Shareholder proposals to change the date, time, and/or location of the annual meeting unless the current scheduling or location is unreasonable;

• Proposals to approve other business when it appears as a voting item;

• Proposals giving the board exclusive authority to amend the bylaws; and

• Proposals to reduce quorum requirements for shareholder meetings below a majority of the shares outstanding unless there are compelling reasons to support the proposal.

Environmental and Social Issues

As a fiduciary, we consider the financial and economic implications of environmental and social issues first and foremost. Environmental and social factors not only can have an impact on the reputation of companies; they may also represent significant operational risks and costs to business.

Well-developed environmental and social management systems can also generate efficiencies and enhance productivity, both of which impact shareholder value in the long-term.

SSGA encourages companies to be transparent about the environmental and social risks and opportunities they face and adopt robust policies and processes to manage such issues. In our view, companies that manage all risks and consider opportunities related to environmental and social issues are able to adapt faster to changes and appear to be better placed to achieve sustainable competitive advantage in the long term. Similarly, companies with good risk management systems, which include environmental and social policies, have a stronger position relative to their peers to manage risk and change, which could result in anything from regulation and litigation, physical threats (severe weather, climate change), economic trends as well as shifts in consumer behavior.

In their public reporting, we expect companies to disclose information on relevant management tools and material environmental and social performance metrics. We support efforts by companies to try to demonstrate how sustainability fits into overall strategy, operations and business activities. SSGA’s team of analysts evaluates these risks on an issuerby-issuer basis; understanding that environmental and social risks can vary widely depending on company industry, its operations, and geographic footprint. 


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Investing involves risk including the risk of loss of principal.

The whole or any part of this work may not be reproduced, copied or transmitted or any of its contents disclosed to third parties without SSGA' express written consent.

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