2018 Proxy Voting and Engagement Guidelines: Japan

State Street Global Advisors ("SSGA") Proxy Voting and Engagement Guidelines in Japan address areas including: board structure, audit related issues, capital structure, remuneration, environmental, social and other governance related issues. Principally, we believe the primary responsibility of the board of directors is to preserve and enhance shareholder value and protect shareholder interests. In order to carry out their primary responsibilities, directors have to undertake activities that range from setting strategy and overseeing executive management to monitoring the risks that arise from a company's business, including risks related to sustainability issues. Further, good corporate governance necessitates the existence of effective internal controls and risk management systems, which should be governed by the board.

When voting and engaging with companies in Japan, SSGA takes into consideration the unique aspects of Japanese corporate governance structures. We recognize that under Japanese corporate law, companies may choose between two structures of corporate governance: the statutory auditor system or the committee structure. Most Japanese boards predominantly consist of executives and non-independent outsiders affiliated through commercial relationships or cross-shareholdings. Nonetheless, when evaluating companies, SSGA expects Japanese companies to address conflicts of interest, risk management and demonstrate an effective process for monitoring management. In its analysis and research into corporate governance issues in Japanese companies, SSGA also considers guidance issued by the Corporate Law Subcommittee of the Legislative Council within the Ministry of Justice as well as private study groups.

SSGA's Proxy Voting and Engagement Philosophy

In our view, corporate governance and sustainability issues are an integral part of the investment process. The Asset Stewardship Team consists of investment professionals with expertise in corporate governance and company law, remuneration, and environmental and social issues. SSGA has established robust corporate governance principles and practices that are backed with extensive analytical expertise to understand the complexities of the corporate governance landscape. SSGA engages with companies to provide insight on the principles and practices that drive our voting decisions. We also conduct proactive engagement to address significant shareholder concerns and environmental, social and governance ("ESG") issues in a manner consistent with maximizing shareholder value.

The team works alongside members of SSGA's active investment teams; collaborating on issuer engagement and providing input on company specific fundamentals. SSGA is also a member of various investor associations that seek to address broader corporate governance related policy issues in Japan.

SSGA is a signatory to the United Nations Principles of Responsible Investment ("UNPRI") and is compliant with Japan's Stewardship Code and Corporate Governance Code. We are committed to sustainable investing and are working to further integrate ESG principles into investment and corporate governance practices, where applicable and consistent with our fiduciary duty.

Directors and Boards

SSGA believes that a well constituted board of directors, with a good balance of skills, expertise and independence, provides the foundations for a well governed company. SSGA views board quality as a measure of director independence, director succession planning, board diversity, evaluations and refreshment, and company governance practices. SSGA votes for the election/re-election of directors on a case-by-case basis after considering various factors including board quality, general market practice and availability of information on director skills and expertise. In principle, SSGA believes independent directors are crucial to good corporate governance and help management establish sound corporate governance policies and practices. A sufficiently independent board will most effectively monitor management and perform oversight functions necessary to protect shareholder interests. Further, SSGA expects boards of TOPIX 500 listed companies to have at least one female board member.

Japanese companies have the option  on of having a traditional board of directors with statutory auditors, a board with a committee structure, or a hybrid board with board level audit committee. SSGA will generally support companies that seek shareholder approval to adopt a committee or hybrid board structure.

Most Japanese issuers prefer the traditional statutory auditor structure. Statutory auditors act in a quasi-compliance role as they are not involved in strategic decision-making nor are they part of the formal management decision process.

Statutory auditors attend board meetings but do not have voting rights at the board; however, they have the right to seek an injunction and conduct broad investigations of unlawful behavior in the company’s operations.

SSGA will support the election of statutory auditors, unless the outside statutory auditor nominee is regarded as non-independent based on SSGA criteria, the outside statutory auditor has attended less than 75 percent of meetings of the board of directors or board of statutory auditors during the year under review, or the statutory auditor has been remiss in the performance of their oversight responsibilities (fraud, criminal wrong doing and breach of fiduciary responsibilities).

For companies with a statutory auditor structure there is no legal requirement that boards have outside directors, however, SSGA believes there should be a transparent process of independent and external monitoring of management on behalf of shareholders.

  • SSGA believes that boards of TOPIX 500 companies should have at least three independent directors or be at least one-third independent, whichever requires fewer independent directors, otherwise, SSGA may oppose the top executive who is responsible for the director nomination process; and
  • For controlled, non-TOPIX 500 companies with a statutory auditor structure or hybrid structure, SSGA may oppose the top executive, if the board does not have at least two independent directors.
  • For non-controlled, non-TOPIX 500 companies with a statutory auditor structure or hybrid structure, SSGA may oppose the top executive, if the board does not have at least two outside directors.

For companies with a committee structure or a hybrid board structure, SSGA also takes into consideration the overall independence level of the committees. In determining director independence, SSGA considers the following factors:

  • Participation in related-party transactions and other business relations with the company;
  • Past employment with the company;
  • Provides professional services to the company; and
  • Family ties with the company.

Regardless of board structure, SSGA may oppose the election of a director for the following reasons:

  • Failure to attend board meetings; or
  • In instances of egregious actions related to a director’s service on the board.

Indemnification and Limitations on Liability

Generally, SSGA supports proposals to limit directors’ and statutory auditors’ liability and/or expand indemnification and liability protection up to the limit provided by law, if he or she has not acted in bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of his or her office. SSGA believes limitations and indemnification are necessary to attract and retain qualified directors.

Audit Related Items

SSGA believes that a company’s auditor is an essential feature of an effective and transparent system of external supervision and shareholders should have the opportunity to vote on their appointment at the annual meeting.

Ratifying External Auditors

SSGA will generally support the appointment of external auditors unless the external auditor is perceived as being non-independent and there are concerns about the accounts presented and the audit procedures followed.

Limit Legal Liability of External Auditors

SSGA generally opposes limiting the legal liability of audit firms as we believe this could create a negative impact on the quality of the audit function.

Capital Structure, Reorganization and Mergers

SSGA supports the “one share one vote” policy and favors a share structure where all shares have equal voting rights. SSGA supports proposals to abolish voting caps or multiple voting rights and will oppose measures to introduce these types of restrictions on shareholder rights.

SSGA believes pre-emption rights should be introduced for shareholders in order to provide adequate protection from being overly diluted from the issuance of new shares or convertible securities to third parties or a small number of select shareholders.

Unequal Voting Rights

SSGA generally opposes proposals authorizing the creation of new classes of common stock with superior voting rights and will generally oppose new classes of preferred stock with unspecified voting, conversion, dividend distribution, and other rights. In addition, SSGA will not support capitalization changes that add classes of stock with undefined voting rights or classes that may dilute the voting interests of existing shareholders.

However, SSGA will support capitalization changes that eliminate other classes of stock and/or unequal voting rights.

Increase in Authorized Capital

SSGA generally supports increases in authorized capital where the company provides an adequate explanation for the use of shares. In the absence of an adequate explanation, SSGA may oppose the request if the increase in authorized capital exceeds 100 percent of the currently authorized capital. Where share issuance requests exceed our standard threshold, SSGA will consider the nature of the specific need, such as mergers and acquisitions and stock splits.


SSGA generally supports dividend payouts that constitute 30% or more of net income. SSGA may vote against the dividend payouts if the dividend payout ratio has been consistently below 30% without adequate explanation; or, the payout is excessive given the company’s financial position.Particular attention will be paid where the payment may damage the company’s long-term financial health.

Share Repurchase Programs

Companies are allowed under Japan Corporate Law to amend their articles to authorize the repurchase of shares at the board’s discretion. SSGA will oppose an amendment to articles allowing the repurchase of shares at the board’s discretion. SSGA believes the company should seek shareholder approval for a share repurchase program at each year’s AGM, providing shareholders the right to evaluate the purpose of the repurchase.

SSGA generally supports a proposal to repurchase shares, other than if the issuer does not clearly state the business purpose for the program, a definitive number of shares to be repurchased, and the timeframe for the repurchase. SSGA may vote against share repurchase requests that allow share repurchases during a takeover period.

Mergers and Acquisitions

Mergers or reorganizing the structure of a company often involve proposals relating to reincorporation, restructurings, mergers, liquidations, and other major changes to the corporation. Proposals that are in the best interests of the shareholders, demonstrated by enhancing share value or improving the effectiveness of the company’s operations, will be supported. In general, provisions that are not viewed as economically sound or are thought to be destructive to shareholders’ rights are not supported.

SSGA evaluates mergers and structural reorganizations on a case-by-case basis. SSGA will generally support transactions that maximize shareholder value. Some of the considerations include, but are not limited to the following:

  • Offer premium;
  • Strategic rationale;
  • Board oversight of the process for the recommended transaction, including, director and/or management conflicts of interest;
  • Offers made at a premium and where there are no other higher bidders; and
  • Offers in which the secondary market price is substantially lower than the net asset value.

SSGA may vote against a transaction considering the following:

  • Offers with potentially damaging consequences for minority shareholders because of illiquid stock;
  • Offers where we believe there is a reasonable prospect for an enhanced bid or other bidders; and
  • At the time of voting, the current market price of the security exceeds the bid price.

Anti-Takeover Measures

In general, SSGA believes that adoption of poison pills that have been structured to protect management and to prevent takeover bids from succeeding is not in shareholders’ interest. A shareholder rights plan may lead to management entrenchment and discourage legitimate tender offers and acquisitions. Even if the premium paid to companies with a shareholder rights plan is higher than that offered to unprotected firms, a company’s chances of receiving a takeover offer in the first place may be reduced by the presence of a shareholder rights plan.

Proposals that reduce shareholders’ rights or have the effect of entrenching incumbent management will not be supported.

Proposals that enhance the right of shareholders to make their own choices as to the desirability of a merger or other proposal are supported.

Shareholder Rights Plans

In evaluating the adoption or renewal of a Japanese issuer’s shareholder rights plans (“poison pill”), SSGA considers the following conditions: (i) release of proxy circular with details of the proposal with adequate notice in advance of meeting, (ii) minimum trigger, flip-in or flip-over of 20%, (iii) maximum term of three years, (iv) sufficient number of independent directors, (v) presence of an independent committee, (vi) annual election of directors, (vii) no other protective or entrenchment features. Additionally, SSGA considers the total duration a shareholder rights plan has been in effect.

In evaluating an amendment to a shareholder rights plan (“poison pill”), in addition to the conditions above, SSGA will also evaluate and consider supporting proposals where the terms of the new plans are more favorable to shareholders’ ability to accept unsolicited offers.



In Japan, excessive compensation is rarely an issue. Rather, the problem is the lack of connection between pay and performance. Fixed salaries and cash retirement bonuses tend to comprise a significant portion of the compensation structure while performance-based pay is generally a small portion of the total pay. SSGA, where possible, seeks to encourage the use of performance based compensation in Japan as an incentive for executives and as a way to align interests with shareholders.

Approve Adjustment to Aggregate Compensation Ceiling for Directors

Remuneration for directors is generally reasonable. Typically, each company sets the director compensation parameters as an aggregate thereby limiting the total pay to all directors. When requesting a change, a company must disclose the last time the ceiling was adjusted and management provides the rationale for the ceiling increase. SSGA will generally support proposed increases to the ceiling if the company discloses the rationale for the increase. SSGA may oppose proposals to increase the ceiling if there has been corporate malfeasance or sustained poor performance.

Approve Annual Bonuses for Directors/ Statutory Auditors

In Japan, since there are no legal requirements that mandate companies to seek shareholder approval before awarding a bonus, SSGA believes that existing shareholder approval of the bonus should be considered best practice. As a result, SSGA supports management proposals on executive compensation where there is a strong relationship between executive pay and performance over a five-year period.

Approve Retirement Bonuses for Directors/ Statutory Auditors

Retirement bonuses make up a sizeable portion of directors’ and auditors’ lifetime compensation and are based on board tenure. While many companies in Japan have abolished this practice, there remain many proposals seeking shareholder approval for the total amounts paid to directors and statutory auditors as a whole. In general, SSGA supports these payments unless the recipient is an outsider or in instances where the amount is not disclosed.

Approve Stock Plan

Most option plans in Japan are conservative, particularly at large companies. Japan corporate law requires companies to disclose the monetary value of the stock options for directors and/or statutory auditors. Some companies do not disclose the maximum number of options that can be issued per year and shareholders are unable to evaluate the dilution impact. In this case, SSGA cannot calculate the dilution level and, therefore, SSGA may oppose such plans for poor disclosure. SSGA also opposes plans that allow for the repricing of the exercise price.

Deep Discount Options

As Japanese companies move away from the retirement bonus system, deep discount options plans have become more popular. Typically, the exercise price is set at JPY 1 per share. SSGA evaluates deep discount options using the same criteria used to evaluate stock options as well as considering the vesting period.

Environmental and Social Issues

As a fiduciary, SSGA considers the financial and economic implications of environmental and social issues first and foremost. In this regard, SSGA supports environmental and social related items that we believe would protect or enhance shareholder value. Environmental and social factors can not only have an impact on the reputation of companies; they may also represent significant operational risks and costs to business. Well-developed environmental and social management systems generate efficiencies and enhance productivity, both of which impact shareholder value in the long-term.

SSGA encourages companies to be transparent about the environmental and social risks and opportunities they face and adopt robust policies and processes to manage such issues. Companies with good risk management systems, which include environmental and social policies, have a stronger position relative to their peers to manage risk and change.

In their public reporting, we expect companies to disclose information on relevant management tools and material environmental and social performance metrics. We support efforts by companies to try to demonstrate how sustainability fits into overall strategy, operations and business activities. SSGA’s team of analysts evaluates these risks on an issuer by issuer basis; understanding that environmental and social risks can vary widely depending on company industry, its operations, and geographic footprint.

Miscellaneous/Routine Items

Expansion of Business Activities

Japanese companies’ articles of incorporation strictly define the types of businesses in which a company is permitted to engage. In general, SSGA views proposals to expand and diversify the company’s business activities as routine and non-contentious. SSGA will monitor instances where there has been an inappropriate acquisition and diversification away from the company’s main area of competence, which resulted in a decrease of shareholder value.

More Information

Any client who wishes to receive information on how its proxies were voted should contact its SSGA relationship manager.


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Exp. Date: 03/31/2019


i These Proxy Voting and Engagement Guidelines are also applicable to SSGA Funds Management, Inc. (“SSGA FM”). SSGA FM is an SEC‐registered investment adviser. SSGA FM, State Street Global Advisors Trust Company, and other advisory affiliates of State Street make up State Street Global Advisors (“SSGA”), the investment management arm of State Street Corporation.