Global Demographics and Retirement Implications

Key Points

  • This paper looks at 10 advanced countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, the UK and the US) and shows how changing age boundaries can lower old-age dependency ratios.
  •  It explores the role demographic differences play in explaining differences in consumption, savings, labour, retirement and debt patterns across countries
  •  It recommends policy changes to create sustainable systems that reflect modern demographics, for example:
    • Abolish mandatory retirement ages
    • Make state benefits more flexible,
    • Promote gender equality,
    • Adopt selective immigration and
    • Encourage lifelong learning
  • It identifies the need to address the potential inequality created by the shift towards Defined Contribution pensions.
  • It suggests funds offer retirees appropriate retirement income options and post-retirement default solutions to aid the transition from the savings phase to the retirement phase

Contact the Global Demographics & Retirement Research team for a full copy of this report.


All information has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but its accuracy is not guaranteed. The whole or any part of this work may not be reproduced, copied or transmitted or any of its contents disclosed to third parties without SSGA's express written consent.

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